Questions and Answers
Hi, I'm a producer of sorts. I recently got into Jazz, Jazz-Funk and Jazz influenced genres.
It would be helpful, if people can give me a great explanation of Jazz, how its played, how its made, what makes it unique. Etc
Thanks in Advance.
There is a lot that goes into jazz but here are some things off the top of my head:
-Accenting the beats 2 and 4
-Swing rhythm in certain styles (a quarter note becomes a dotted quarter and 8th note, or an 8th may become a dotted 8th and 16th, etc.) It's more of a feel than something you will have to read and think about, as many aspects of jazz are
-Commonly using notes out of key to advantage (it is not as random as it sounds, the notes and chords work hand in hand)
-Freeform soloing based on chord progressions: Usually, the rhythm section plays the same chord changes written over the melody of a song during each instrument's solo, or a more condensed progression almost identical to the melody's chords (that is used more in a big band ensemble than a small combo). A solo can be made to conform to the changes more than the key by the use of arpeggios and different scales. This is best learned by hands-on experimentation with soloing.
-Common jazz progression: 2,5,1
-Common jazz blues progression: 1,1,4,5
-Chord progressions are always composed of 7th chords and harmonic instruments of the rhythm section (guitar, piano, bass, etc.) can add extensions that aren't written (6th/13th, 9th, sus4th, etc.) and so can an instrument in his/her solo, so extended arpeggios or different arpeggios than the chord being played can be experimented with in a solo
-Use of ear, arpeggios, and licks (flashy segments of great jazz solos transcribed and commonly used as fillers by other jazz artists) in both melody and solos
-Songs are taken and can be played with different instruments and arrangements for solo sections and melodies; you don't have to compose songs to become a great jazz artist
-Many styles make up jazz: bossa nova, blues, bebop, swing, ballad, waltz, etc.: each major style should be studied to learn overall and instrument-specific requirements
-Soloing and what an artist makes of a song is more defining then the melody and chords themselves. Jazz is 90% style and feel and 10% written music.
-You can read all about jazz you want. It's good but you really start learning and understanding it when you start REALLY listening to jazz; by REALLY I mean being interested enough to analyze what the jazz masters do in their songs while listening, and becoming interested enough to transcribe solos or interesting aspects of a song while listening to it and try to figure out how you can play like that jazz musician. Once you get into jazz enough to where you have a desire to transcribe everything you really like (that you can) then you can begin to get a feel for jazz, learn licks, and figure out how to improvise and make a melody more interesting than it was written.
Instruments commonly used in jazz:
-Bass (upright used in most classic bop, swing, etc. Electric is used commonly also, especially in more modern jazz)
-Guitar (usually hollowbody or semi-hollow electric; versatile guitars are occasionally used also in modern fused jazz)
-Drumset and some other miscellaneous rhythmic precussion.
Im a beginner tenor sax player and was wondering how to solo over those 2 chords. What are the note tones (3rd, 7th)? Waht do the 9 and 7 even mean (sharp, flat, note tone)? The song is medium funk, if it helps. Thanks.
Dm9 = D minor triad + the m7 (b7) + 9 = D,F,A +C +E
depending on the progression you can uses a Aeolian (minor scale) mode: DEFGABbC
a Dorian mode: DEFGABC
a minor pentatonic: DFGAC
also you can mess around w/ the arpeggios and whatnot
Am7 = A minor triad + the m7 (b7) = A,C,E,+G
Also depeding on the progression a Aeolian mode would fit: ABCDEFG
a Phrygian mode: ABbCDEFG
a Dorian mode: ABCDEF#G
a minor pentatonic: ACDFG
also mess w/ arpeggios include 7s
The chords you see above the lines represent notes. Every chord is based on a triad, which is the 1st, 3rd, and 5th note of the given scale. There are 4 types of triads. Major, minor, diminished, and augmented.
When you have a chord like C, its simple. You take the 1st 3rd and 5th note of the C scale (C,E,G)
When every you see a little "m" or a (-) sign, this means its minor. Minor chords have a minor 3rd (you b3). So an example in C is C,Eb,G
A diminished chord has a "dim" next to the note or a little circle (º). This has a minor 3rd (b3) and a diminished 5th (b5). So Cº (Cdim), is C,Eb,Gb.
An augmented triad has a major 3rd (a regular 3rd) and a augmented 5th (#5). Its symbol is a (+) sign. C+ notes are C,E,G#
When you have chords w/ a 7, its all ways a b7, unless that say "maj7" next to it. C7 will have the notes from the C major triad (C,E,G) + the flatted 7 from the C major scale (Bb). The notes are C,E,G,Bb.
The same process occurs w/ minor chords, like you Am7. Its A (the root), C (the minor 3rd), E (the 5th of the major scale, its actually called a perfect 5th), and the minor 7 or b7 (G). Am7 = A,C,E,G
Diminished 7 chords are different (instead of a b7 it has a bb7 (double-flatted 7, which turns out to be the 6th)). So its 1, b3, b5, bb7. Cº7 or Cdim7 is C,Eb,Gb, A
All numbers under 7 (theres no 8) relate to notes in the major scale in one 8va, but once you past the 8va it becomes a compound interval. Its the same note but one 8va higher. So a Cadd9 (watch out for notation. A C9 chord is different than a Cadd9) has a 9 (which is and 2nd one 8va up, the easist way to find out a what compound interval really is, is to subtract 7). Cadd9, has a 1,3,5, and add in a 9. So the notes are C,E,G,D
note: when you have chords w/ number 7 and more you include the intervals under it (to a certain point). Ex: C9 has a major triad (C,E,G), and a b7(Bb) an a 9 (D). C9 = C,E,G,Bb,D. Then theres C11, which has a 1,3,5,b7,9, and a 11. Then finally 13s which are 1,3,5,b7,9,13 (this omits the 11). You see, how the 7s are always flatted and the 3rd is alway major, this is because they are called Dominant chords which you WILL see in harder and more complex songs.
Ohshit?!?! I went way overboard, sorry bout that. You can get more theory lessons from these sights cause im done, lol
I got a solo in a funk/swing chart by sammy nestico called "The Joy of Cookin"
i cant really figure out what these chords are... They don't really go ii-V... Is there even an analysis to be had here?
Here are the chords
F#7 (sus4) this is solo break for 2 bars
then it goes in 4 bars each
thanks in advance.
Em9 Gm9 F#m9=constant structure min 9 chords
E--G= up a min 3
G-F#= down 1/2 step
F#-F= down 1/2 step.